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Physical and Chemical Data of Source Clays

SOURCE CLAY PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL DATA

Other references , baseline studies and MSDS data sheets

Listed below are data from Data Handbook for Clay Minerals and Other Non-metallic Minerals, edited by H.Van Olphena and J.J. Fripiat, publishedby Pergamon Press. The data are available only for source clay minerals, not special clay minerals. Data shown below for special clay is unofficial and meant to be used as guideline and NOT an analytical certification.

SOURCE CLAY MINERALS

Kaolin KGa-1(KGa-1b), (low-defect)
ORIGIN: Tuscaloosa formation? (Cretaceous?) (stratigraphy uncertain)
County of Washington, State of Georgia, USA
LOCATION: 32o58' N-82o53' W approximately, topographic map Tabernacle, GeorgiaN 3252.5-W 8252.5/7.5, Collected from face of Coss-Hodges pit, October 3,1972.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 44.2, Al2O3: 39.7, TiO2: 1.39, Fe2O3: 0.13,FeO: 0.08, MnO: 0.002, MgO: 0.03, CaO: n.d., Na2O: 0.013, K2O: 0.05, F:0.013,P2O5: 0.034, Loss on heating: -550oC: 12.6; 550-1000oC: 1.18.
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 2.0 meq/100g
SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 10.05 +/- 0.02 m2/g
THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherm at 630oC, exotherm at 1015oC, TG: dehydroxylationweight loss 13.11% (theory 14%) indicating less than 7% impurities.
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: Typical spectrum for well crystallized kaolinite,however not as well crystallized as a typical China clay from Cornwall,as judged from the intensity of the 3669 cm-1 band. Splitting of the 1100cm- 1 band is due to the presence of coarse crystals.
STRUCTURE:(Mg.02 Ca.01 Na.01 K.01)[Al3.86 Fe(III).02 Mntr Ti.11][Si3.83Al.17]O10(OH)8, Octahedral charge:.11, Tetrahedral charge:-.17,Interlayer charge:-.06, Unbalanced charge:0.00

Kaolin KGa-2, (high-defect)
ORIGIN: Probably lower tertiary (stratigraphic sequence uncertain)
County of Warren, State of Georgia, USA
LOCATION: 33o19' N-82o28' W approximately, topographic map Bowdens Pond,Georgia N 3315-W 8222.5/7.5, Collected from face of Purvis pit, October4, 1972.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 43.9, Al2O3: 38.5, TiO2: 2.08, Fe2O3: 0.98,FeO: 0.15, MnO: n.d., MgO: 0.03, CaO: n.d., Na2O: <0.005, K2O: 0.065,P2O5: 0.045, S: 0.02, Loss on heating: -550oC: 12.6; 550-1000oC: 1.17, F:0.02.
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 3.3 meq/100g
SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 23.50 +/- 0.06 m2/g
THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherm at 625oC, exotherm at 1005oC, TG: dehydroxylationweight loss 13.14% (theory 14%) indicating less than 7% impurities.
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: Typical spectrum for less crystallized kaolinite,however the mineral is not extremely disordered since the band at 3669 cm-1is still present in the spectrum.
STRUCTURE:(Catr Ktr)[Al3.66 Fe(III).07 Mntr Mgtr Ti.16][Si4.00]O10(OH)8, Octahedral charge:.16, Tetrahedral charge:0.00,Interlayer charge:.16, Unbalanced charge:.15, Extra Si:.04

Palygorskite(Attapulgite) PFl-1
ORIGIN: Hawthorne formation (miocene)
County of Gadsden, State of Florida, USA
LOCATION: SE 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 10, T 3 N, R 3 W., topographic map Dogtown,Florida (7.5'), Collected at the Luten mine from the first foot of claybed after stripping of overburden, October 13, 1972.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 60.9, Al2O3: 10.4, TiO2: 0.49, Fe2O3: 2.98,FeO: 0.40, MnO: 0.058, MgO: 10.2, CaO: 1.98, Na2O: 0.058, K2O: 0.80, F:0.542, P2O5: 0.80, S: 0.11, Loss on heating: -550oC: 8.66; 550-1000oC: 1.65.
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 19.5 meq/100g
SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 136.35 +/- 0.31 m2/g
THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherm at 170oC, exotherm at 905oC, desorptionof water; 230-300, desorption of adsorbed water; 495oC; 550oC,dehydroxylation;840oC . TG: Loss of absorbed water 12.96% (theory 14%), loss of structural water 5.52%.
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: The spectrum indicates fairly pure attapulgite.A trace of quartz is detectable (780 and 800 cm-1 ). The spectrum showsconsiderable shifts upon drying of the sample in the OH stretching region(3000-3700 cm-1) and in the Si-O stretching region (1000-1200 cm-1) Theseshifts are reversible.
STRUCTURE:(Mg.33Ca.62 Na.04 K.13)[Al1.50 Fe(III).52 Fe(II).01 Mn.01 Mg1.91Ti.06][Si7.88 Al.22]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-1.87, Tetrahedral charge:-.22,Interlayer charge:-2.09, Unbalanced charge:0.00

"Cheto" SAz-1 or SAz-2
ORIGIN: Bidahochi formation (pliocene)
County of Apache, State of Arizina, USA
LOCATION: SE 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 26, T 21 N?, R 29 E., topographic map: Gallup(1:250,000), Collected from pit after overburden was stripped, May 8, 1973.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 60.4, Al2O3: 17.6, TiO2: 0.24, Fe2O3: 1.42,FeO: 0.08, MnO: 0.099, MgO: 6.46, CaO: 2.82, Na2O: 0.063, K2O: 0.19, F:0.287, P2O5: 0.020, Loss on heating: -550oC: 7.54; 550-1000oC: 2.37.
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 120 meq/100g, major exchange cation Ca.
SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 97.42 +/- 0.58 m2/g
THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherm at 200oC, exotherm at 1020, 1065, 1160oC,shoulder at 240oC , desorption of water; 685oC, dehydroxylation; shoulderat 895oC. TG: Loss in dehydroxylation range: 4.69% (theory 5.0%).
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: The spectrum indicates a low octahedral iron content. A silica phase (band at 790 cm-1) is detectable.
STRUCTURE:(Ca.39 Na.36 K.02)[Al2.71 Mg1.11 Fe(III).12 Mn.01Ti.03][Si8.00]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-1.08, Tetrahedral charge:0.00,Interlayer charge:-1.08, Unbalanced charge:.08,Extra Si:.01

Hectorite SHCa-1
ORIGIN: Red Mountain Andesite formation (pliocene)
County of San Bernardino, State of California, USA
LOCATION: NE 1/4 Sec. 27 T8, R5 E; topographic map: Cady Mountains (15'), Collected from plant stockpile, November, 1972. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 34.7, Al2O3: 0.69, TiO2: 0.038, Fe2O3:0.02, FeO: 0.25, MnO: 0.008, MgO: 15.3, CaO: 23.4, Na2O: 1.26, K2O: 0.13,Li2O: 2.18, F: 2.60, P2O5: 0.014, S: 0.01, Loss on heating: -550oC: 1.20;550-1000oC: 20.6.
According to Steve J. Chipera and David L. Bish in Clays and Clay Minerals, 49 (5), 398-409 (2001), SHCa-1 was found to contain approximately 50% smectite (43% calcite, 3% dolomite, 3% quartz and 1% other).
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 43.9 meq/100g.
SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 63.19 +/- 0.50 m2/g
THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherms at 165oC, desorption of water: shoulderat 725oC, 795oC, dehydroxylation; 880oC, decarboxylation of carbonate; shoulderat 910oC, 1130oC. TG: Ranges of dehydroxylation and release of CO2 overlap;loss of CO2 above 810oC indicates 27% of carbonate (calcite).
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: The spectrum contains strong calcite bands, whichare, however, absent in the fraction <2 um. Quartz is detectable.
STRUCTURE:(Mg.56 Na.42 K.05)[Mg4.60 Li1.39 MntrTi.01][Si7.75 Al.17 Fe(III).05]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-1.35, Tetrahedral charge:-.22,Interlayer charge:-1.57, Unbalanced charge:.02,24.84% CaCO3 as calcite

Texas Montmorillonite STx-1
ORIGIN: Manning formation, Jackson group (eocene)
County of Gonzales, State of Texas, USA
LOCATION: 29o30' N, 97o22' W approximately, topographic map: Hamon, Texas,N 2922.5-W 9715/7.5, Collected from face of pit, October 17, 1972.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 70.1, Al2O3: 16.0, TiO2: 0.22, Fe2O3: 0.65,FeO: 0.15, MnO: 0.009, MgO: 3.69, CaO: 1.59, Na2O: 0.27, K2O: 0.078, F:0.084, P2O5: 0.026, S: 0.04, Loss on heating: -550oC: 3.32; 550-1000oC:3.22, CO2: 0.16.
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 84.4 meq/100g, major exchange cation Ca.
SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 83.79 +/- 0.22 m2/g
THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherms at 185oC (shoulder at 235oC), desorptionof water: 725oC, dehydroxylation; shoulder at 920oC, exotherms at 1055oC,1065oC, 1135oC. TG: Loss in dehydroxylation range: 3.88% (theory: 5%).
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: The spectrum indicates a low iron content. Quartz(697 cm-1), a silica phase (797 cm-1), and a trace of carbonate (1400 cm-1)are detectable.
STRUCTURE:(Ca.27 Na.04 K.01)[Al2.41 Fe(III).09 Mntr Mg.71Ti..03][Si8.00]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.68, Tetrahedral charge:0.00,Interlayer charge:-.68, Unbalanced charge:-.08,Extra Si:.59

Na-Montmorillonite (Wyoming) SWy-1, SWy-2 and SWy-3 (SWy-2 and SWy-3 are the same as SWy-1. SWy-2 and SWy-3 were collected from the same mine from where SWy-1 was collected at two later occasions).
ORIGIN: Newcastle formation, (cretaceous)
County of Crook, State of Wyoming, USA
LOCATION: NE 1/4 SE 1/4 Sec.18, T 57 N, R 65 W; 8, Topographic map: Seeley(15'), The upper 63 of recently stripped area was removed to expose clean,green upper Newcastle, Collected from which samples was taken, October 3,1972.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 62.9, Al2O3: 19.6, TiO2: 0.090, Fe2O3:3.35, FeO: 0.32, MnO: 0.006, MgO: 3.05, CaO: 1.68, Na2O: 1.53, K2O: 0.53,F: 0.111, P2O5: 0.049, S: 0.05, Loss on heating: -550oC: 1.59; 550-1000oC:4.47, CO2: 1.33.
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 76.4 meq/100g, principal exchange cationsNa and Ca.
SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 31.82 +/- 0.22 m2/g
THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherms at 185oC (shoulder at 235oC), desorptionof water: 755oC, dehydroxylation; shoulder at 810oC, exotherms at 980oC. TG: Loss in dehydroxylation range: 5.53% (theory: 5%).
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: Typical spectrum for Wyoming bentonite with a moderateFe+3 content (band at 885 cm-1). Quartz is detectable (band at 780, 800,698, 400, and 373 cm-1), a trace of carbonate (band at 1425 cm-1).
STRUCTURE:(Ca.12 Na.32 K.05)[Al3.01 Fe(III).41 Mn.01 Mg.54Ti.02][Si7.98 Al.02]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.53, Tetrahedral charge:-.02,Interlayer charge:-.55, Unbalanced charge:.05,

Na-Montmorillonite (Australia) SAu-1 (Arumpo Bentonite)
ORIGIN: Victoria, Australia
LOCATION: Samples were collected by Arumpo Bentonite Pty Ltd, Mildura, Victoria, Australia in 2019 and donated to the Clay Minerals Society.
TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (as is basis)
Montmorillonite content >90%, Cation Exchange Capacity (meq/100g) >90, Bulk
Density (t/m3) 1.2, Swell Index 7-12m//2gm, pH 5-7.5, Moisture Content – Fine
Grade 12-18%, Moisture Content – Granular Grade 12-18%
TYPICAL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Silica (SiO2) 61.5%, Alumina (Al2O3) 18.5%, Soda (Na2O) 1.3% Magnesia (MgO) 5.2%, Lime (CaO) 0.1%, Potash (K2O) 1.3%, Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) 4.1%,

Barasym SSM-100 Syn-1
ORIGIN: Synthetic, trade name Barasym SSM-100, Baroid Division, NL Industries,date of manufacture: 1972
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 49.7 Al2O3: 38.2, TiO2: 0.023, Fe2O3: 0.02,MgO: 0.014, Na2O: 0.26, K2O: <0.01, Li2O; 0.25, F: 0.76, P2O5: 0.001,S: 0.10, Loss on heating: -550oC: 8.75; 550-1000oC: 2.4.
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): Barium method ca.70 meq/100g; ammonium methodca. 140 meq/100g.
SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 133.66 +/- 0.72 m2/g
THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherms at 140oC, desorption of water: 575oC,dehydroxylation; exotherms at 1030oC. TG: The weight loss in dehydroxylationrange: 10.35% due to simultaneous loss of ammonium which is the major exchangecation.
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: The spectrum is broadly similar to that of muscoviteand contains bands due to NH4 ( 1432 and 1404 cm-1) and to NH4Br from thereaction in the KBr disk.
STRUCTURE:(Mg.06 Ca.04 Na.12 Ktr)[Al3.99 Fe(III)tr MntrTitr][Si6.50 Al1.50]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:.01, Tetrahedral charge:-1.50,Interlayer charge:-1.49, Unbalanced charge:-1.17,Extra Al:.40

SPECIAL CLAY MINERALS

Ripidolite(Chlorite) CCa-2
ORIGIN: Flagstaff Hill, El Dorado County, California, USA
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 26.0 Al2O3: 20.0, TiO2: 0.476, Fe2O3:26.6, FeO: 20.8, MnO: 0.1, MgO: 17.2, CaO: 0.25, Na2O:
<0.1, K2O: ><0.1, P2O5: 0.02, LOI: 9.32>STRUCTURE:(Ca.05)[Mg4.44 Al.60 Fe(III)3.47 Fe(II)3.02 Mn.01Ti.06][Si4.51 Al13.49]O20(OH)16,Lacks Mg:.40

Montmorillonite (Otay) SCa-3
ORIGIN: Otay San Diego County, California, USA
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 52.8 Al2O3: 15.7, TiO2: 0.181, Fe2O3:1.06, FeO:
<0.10, MnO: 0.03, MgO: 7.98, CaO: 0.95, Na2O: 0.92, K2O: 0.03,P2O5: 0.02, LOI: 21.2>STRUCTURE:(Mg.45 Ca.15 Na.26 K.01)[Al2.55 Fe(III).12 Mntr Mg1.31 Ti.02 ][Si7.81 Al.19]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-1.29, Tetrahedral charge:-0.19,Interlayer charge:-1.48, Unbalanced charge:0.00,

Ferruginous Smectite SWa-1
ORIGIN: Grant County, Washington, USA
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 43.75 Al2O3: 7.95, TiO2: 0.54, Fe2O3:25.25, FeO: 0, MnO: 0.03, MgO: 1.75, CaO: 2.05, Na2O: 0, K2O: 0.03,P2O5: 0.05, LOI: 19.35
STRUCTURE:(Mg.18 Ca.36 K.01)[Al.61 Fe(III)3.08 Mntr Mg.24 Ti.07][Si7.09 Al.91]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.18, Tetrahedral charge:-.91,Interlayer charge:-1.09, Unbalanced charge:0.00,

Vermiculite (Llano) VTx-1
ORIGIN: Liano County, Texas, USA
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 27.8 Al2O3: 0.59, TiO2: 0.047, Fe2O3:1.12, FeO:
<0.10, MnO: 0.08, MgO: 29.7, CaO: 14.6, Na2O: ><.01, K2O: 0.03,P2O5: 0.03, LOI: 26.2>STRUCTURE:(Mg2.27 Ca2.92 K.01)[Mg5.98 Mn.01 Ti.01][Si7.71 Al.13Fe(III).16]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:.02, Tetrahedral charge:-0.29,Interlayer charge:-.27, Unbalanced charge:+10.12,Lacks Si:2.53

Illite IMt-1 and IMt-2
ORIGIN: Silver Hill, Montana, USA
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 49.3 Al2O3: 24.25, TiO2: 0.55, Fe2O3:7.32, FeO: 0.55, MnO: 0.03, MgO: 2.56, CaO: 0.43, Na2O: 0, K2O: 7.83,P2O5: 0.08, LOI: 8.02
STRUCTURE:(Mg.09 Ca.06 K1.37)[Al2.69 Fe(III).76 Fe(II).06 Mntr Mg.43 Ti.06][Si6.77 Al1.23]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.44, Tetrahedral charge:-1.23,Interlayer charge:-1.68, Unbalanced charge:0.00

Illit-Smectite Mixed Layer (60/40 ordered) ISMt-2
ORIGIN: Mancos shale Cretaceous
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 51.2 Al2O3: 26.3, TiO2: 0.17, Fe2O3:1.49, FeO: 0.1, MnO: 0.01, MgO: 2.41, CaO: 1.4, Na2O: 0.04, K2O: 4.74,P2O5: 0.05, LOI: 12.6
STRUCTURE:(Mg.05 Ca.21 Na.01 K.84)[Al3.37 Fe(III).16 Fe(II).01 Mntr Mg.45Ti.02][Si7.08 Al.92]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.44, Tetrahedral charge:-.92,Interlayer charge:-1.36, Unbalanced charge:0.00

Illit-Smectite Mixed Layer (70/30 ordered) ISCz-1
ORIGIN: Slovakia
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 51.6 Al2O3: 25.6, TiO2: 0.039, Fe2O3:1.11, FeO:
<0.1, MnO: 0.04, MgO: 2.46, CaO: 0.67, Na2O: 0.32, K2O: 5.36,P2O5: 0.04, LOI: 10.2>STRUCTURE:(Mg.03 Ca.1 Na.09 K.95)[Al3.39 Fe(III).12 Mntr Mg.48Titr][Si7.19 Al.81]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.48, Tetrahedral charge:-.81,Interlayer charge:-1.29, Unbalanced charge:0.00

Nontronite NG-1
ORIGIN: Hohen Hagen, Germany
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 45.8 Al2O3: 5.93, TiO2: 0.05, Fe2O3:32.2, FeO: 0, MnO: 0.01, MgO: 1.02, CaO: 1.95, Na2O: 0.03, K2O: 0.13,P2O5: 0.02, LOI: 13.4
STRUCTURE:(Mg.15 Ca.32 Na.01 K.03)[Fe(III)3.75 Al.17 Mntr Mg.08Ti.01][Si7.08 Al.92]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.08, Tetrahedral charge:-.92,Interlayer charge:-.99, Unbalanced charge:0.00

Corrensite CorWa-1
ORIGIN: Pachwook, Washington, USA
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 44.0 Al2O3: 15.4, TiO2: 1.26, Fe2O3:13.9, FeO: 4.5, MnO: 0.32, MgO: 6.24, CaO: 3.44, Na2O: 3.44, K2O: 0.59,P2O5: 0.22, LOI: 12.3
STRUCTURE:(Ca1.2 Na2.17 K.25)[Al4.24 Fe(III)3.41 Fe(II)1.23 Mn.09Mg3.03 Ti.31][Si14.33 Al1.67]O40(OH)20,Octahedral charge:-4.03, Tetrahedral charge:-1.67,Interlayer charge:-5.70, Unbalanced charge:-.88

Saponite SapCa-2
ORIGIN: Ballarat, California, USA
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 47.9 Al2O3: 4.17, TiO2: 0.029, Fe2O3:0.66, FeO:
<0.1, MnO: 0.05, MgO: 26.1, CaO: 0.9, Na2O: 2.73, K2O: 0.39,P2O5: 0.03, LOI: 12.6>STRUCTURE:(Ca1.14 Na.79 K.07)[Mg5.98 Mn.01 Titr][Si7.19 Al.74Fe(III).07]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:+.02, Tetrahedral charge:-.81,Interlayer charge:-.79, Unbalanced charge:+.35Lacks Si:.01, Lacks Mg:.15

Sepiolite SepSp-1
ORIGIN: Valdemore, Spain
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 52.9 Al2O3: 2.56, TiO2:
<.001, Fe2O3:1.22, FeO: 0.3, MnO: 0.13, MgO: 23.6, CaO: ><.01, Na2O: ><0.01, K2O: 0.05,P2O5: 0.01, LOI: 20.8>STRUCTURE:(K.01)[Mg5.54 Al.35 Mn.02 Fe(II).04 Fe(III).14][Si7.90 Al.1]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:+.49, Tetrahedral charge:-.10,Interlayer charge:+.39, Unbalanced charge:+.40Lacks Mg:.20

Sepiolite SepNev-1
ORIGIN: Two Crows, Nevada, USA
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 54.0 Al2O3: 0.5, TiO2:
<.001, Fe2O3: 0.81, FeO: ><0.1, MnO: 0.11, MgO: 23.3, CaO: 1.25, Na2O: 2.1, K2O: 0.15,P2O5: 0.02, LOI: 19.2>STRUCTURE:(Ca.2 Na.6 K.03)[Mg5.81 Al.09 Mn.01 Fe(III).09][Si8.00]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:+.18, Tetrahedral charge:0.0,Interlayer charge:+.18, Unbalanced charge:+1.03Extra Si: 0.02 Lacks Mg:.65

Beidellite, SBCa-1
ORIGIN: California, USA
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 46.45 Al2O3: 27.95, TiO2: 0.517, Fe2O3:2.13, FeO: 0.1, MnO: 0.08, MgO: 0.94, CaO: 1.01, Na2O:
<.01, K2O: 0.72,P2O5: 0.11, LOI: 20.25>STRUCTURE:(Mg.3 Ca.16 K.15)[Al3.82 Fe(III).18 Mntr Ti.06][Si6.80Al1.20]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:+.12, Tetrahedral charge:-1.20,Interlayer charge:-1.08, Unbalanced charge:0.0

Beidellite, SBId-1
ORIGIN: Idaho, USA
STRUCTURE:Si3.772, Al(IV).228, Al(VI)1.786, Fe(III).104, Mg(VI).046 Mn.001Ti.048 Na.012 K.159,.050.Also see Post et al, 1997, Clays and Clay Minerals 45:240-250

Nontronite NAu-1
ORIGIN: South Australia
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 53.33 Al2O3: 10.22, Fe2O3: 34.19MgO: 0.27, CaO: 3.47, Na2O: 0.08, K2O: 0.03
STRUCTURE:(M+1.0)[Si7.00 Al1.00][Al.58 Fe3.38 Mg.05]Also see Keeling, J.L.et al. 2000 "Geology and perliminarycharacterization of two nontronites from Uley graphite mine, South Australia"Clays and Clay Minerals.

Nontronite NAu-2
ORIGIN: South Australia
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 56.99 Al2O3: 3.4, Fe2O3: 37.42MgO: 0.34, CaO: 2.67, Na2O: 0.11, K2O: 0.02
STRUCTURE:(M+.97)[Si7.57 Al.01 Fe.42][Al.52 Fe3.32 Mg.7]O20(OH)4Also see Keeling, J.L.et al. 2000 "Geology and perliminarycharacterization of two nontronites from Uley graphite mine, South Australia" Clays and Clay Minerals.

Synthetic Hectorite SYnH-1
ORIGIN: United Catalysts Inc.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 57-61MgO: 25-29 Li2O 0.5-0.9, Na2O: 2.5-3.5, LOI: <10
DENSITY: 2.5g/cm3
MOISTURE CONTENT: 12%

Illite IWi-1
ORIGIN: Waukesha illite, Silurian, Wisconsin, USA
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION: See Grathoff et al. 1995. Abstract of 32ndAnnual Clay Minerals Society Meeting