Abstract: Proteins interact with montmorillonite forming mono- and poly-layer complexes. About 20 percent of the protein in a monolayer complex undergoes microbial decomposition and the X-ray pattern remains unchanged, whereas in polylayer complexes the protein undergoes extensive decomposition and the c-spacings of these complexes shrink from approximately 30 Å to 12 Å +. Urease is adsorbed completely by H-montmorillonite and only partially by basic montmorillonite. Initial release of urease from the clay is attributed to urea acting as a cation. Subsequently the ammonia evolved by the hydrolysis of urea becomes the active cation. Antibiotic-montmorillonite complexes are classified into three groups. Group I contains strongly basic antibiotics, II amphoteric, and III acid or neutral. The average adsorption of antibiotic in mg per g of clay for each group is: I, 186; II, 307; and III, 9. X-ray diffraction data for groups I and II showed expansion of the c-spacing of 4.4 and 7.6 Å, respectively. Bioassays showed no activity for I and appreciable activity for II. The complexes are incapable of diffusing through agar, but the antibiotics must be released first by cationic exchange and then diffuse through the agar.