Abstract: X-ray diffraction traces were made of oriented aggregates of artificial binary mixtures containing approximately equal, weighed amounts of samples of illite, montmorillonite, mixed-layered combinations of illite and montmorillonite, and of kaolinite samples having different degrees of crystallinity. Measurements most suitable for quantitative purposes were obtained from the 7 Å kaolinite peaks and from the 10 Å peaks of illite and collapsed montmorillonite and collapsed mixed-layer clay. In this paper the sum of five height measurements at half-degree intervals across the peak are considered to be a measure of the area of the peak. Fireclay-type kaolinites gave 7 Å peak areas about equal to the area of the 10 Å peak of an equal amount of illite, montmorillonite, or mixed-layer clay, whereas well-crystallized kaolinites gave 7 Å peak areas generally about twice that of the 10 Å peak of an equal weight of the illite-montmorillonite minerals. Kaolinite samples having intermediate degrees of crystallinity gave 7 Å/10 Å peak area ratios intermediate between 1 : 1 and 2 : 1. The shape of the 7 Å kaolinite peak was used to evaluate the crystallinity of the kaolinite.
X-ray diffraction characteristics of the chlorite minerals from the different groups of sedimentary rocks studied vary considerably, and no uniform method has been found for their evaluation.