Experimental Clay-Mineral Formation from a Subvolcanic Rock by Interaction with 1 M NaOH Solution at Room Temperature

A. Drief, F. Nieto and A. Sanchez-Navas
Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Granada-C.S.I.C, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada, Spain
E-mail of corresponding author: fnieto@goliat.ugr.es

Abstract: The alteration process of a subvolcanic rock with calcic plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine as major components was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and analytical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM/AEM). Experimental interaction with 1 M NaOH solution led to the formation of dioctahedral beidellite to Fe-rich montmorillonite after 1 and 3 d of reaction. This range of smectite composition is similar to that from natural subvolcanic-derived soil formed from the same parent material. After 14 d of reaction, a berthierine-smectite (B-S) interstratified clay had partially replaced the smectite. Although, the presence of smectite interlayers prevented analysis of pure berthierine, berthierine-rich B-S interstratifications have a composition similar to pure berthierine. After 40 d, the alteration process led to a 7-Å S interstratification whose composition falls between greenalite and lizardite. A series of amorphous materials were also found in the 14 and 40-d experiments. The most abundant of these is a Si-Ca-Fe-rich material, whose chemical composition approaches that of the starting rock. In contrast, two other amorphous materials had a smectitic composition.

Key Words: AEM Analysis • Berthierine • Interstratification • Lizardite • NaOH Solution • Smectite

Clays and Clay Minerals; February 2001 v. 49; no. 1; p. 92-106; DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.2001.0490108
© 2001, The Clay Minerals Society
Clay Minerals Society (www.clays.org)