Tetramethylphosphonium- and Tetramethylammonium-Smectites as Adsorbents of Aromatic and Chlorinated Hydrocarbons: Effect of Water on Adsorption Efficiency

Ravi K. Kukkadapu and Stephen A. Boyd
Crop and Soil Sciences Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824

Abstract: Tetramethylphosphonium-smectite (TMP-clay) and tetramethylammonium-smectite (TMA-clay), were prepared and characterized as adsorbents for a series of aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The sorption of benzene, alkylbenzenes, and carbon tetrachloride as vapors and as solutes from water was studied to evaluate the effect of water on adsorption efficiency. Adsorption of organic vapors depended on the N2 BET surface area. TMA-clay was a slightly better adsorbent than TMP-clay, due to its somewhat higher surface area. The Langumir isotherms obtained indicated that adsorption occurred predominantly in the interlayer micropores, apparently on mineral surfaces between onium ions. Adsorption efficiency of both organo-clays decreased, compared to vapor sorptions, in presence of water. Lower sorption was apparently due to shrinkage of the interlayer pore or cavity sizes by hydration of interlayer TMA and TMP cations. Although sorption efficiencies of both organo-clays was reduced in presence of bulk water, the extent of reduction was much less for TMP-clay. Thus, TMP-clay was a better adsorbent than TMA-clay in presence of water, despite its lower surface area, in direct contrast to vapor sorption. The Langumir isotherms indicated interlayer sorption of benzene, alkylbenzenes and carbon tetrachloride from water by TMP-clay. The absence of Langumir isotherms for toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene uptake from water by TMA-clay indicated that these bulkier solutes were not adsorbed in the interlayers. These results indicate that hydration of TMA cations causes shrinkage of the interlayer pores to dimensions that exclude these solutes. The lower degree of hydration of TMP cations enables TMP-clay to maintain interlayer pores large enough to accommodate the bulkier alkylbenzenes.

Key Words: Adsorbent • Adsorption efficiency • Langumir isotherms • Monolayer volumes • Organo-clays • Shrinkage of pores • Sorption from water • Surface area • TMA- and TMP-clays • Vapor sorptions

Clays and Clay Minerals; June 1995 v. 43; no. 3; p. 318-323; DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.1995.0430306
© 1995, The Clay Minerals Society
Clay Minerals Society (www.clays.org)