Abstract: The hot spring water discharging from a flank of an active volcano is precipitating unique monomineralic manganese deposits over volcanic terrain. The major and trace element chemistry, XRD mineralogy, DTA, and SEM observations indicate that the deposits consist of 10 Å phyllomanganate (buserite) accommodating inter-layer Ca and Mg with negligible amounts of detrital minerals. Other metallic elements can be accommodated by buserite, but concentrations are negligible ranging less than 10 ppm to 500 ppm. Abundance and pattern of REE (less than 100 ppm in total) are similar to those from hydrothermal manganese deposits. The buserite is enriched in Ca and Mg but depleted in Na in comparison with those in the spring water. The distribution coefficients for Ca, Mg and Na between the buserite and the host water were calculated assuming an ion-exchange equilibrium in the Yuno-Taki Fails, which proved applicable to other manganese deposits from surficial environments on land and oceans.