Abstract: Suspensions were produced by mixing Na-saturated, Upton montmorillonite with aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of 1,4-dioxane. Each suspension was deposited on a porous ceramic filter in an environmental chamber, and the solution was expressed from it by admitting gaseous helium to the chamber at a slightly elevated pressure. The chamber was fitted 1) with beryllium windows so that X-rays could be transmitted into and out of it and 2) with a drain so that the expressed solution could be conducted to the outside atmosphere. Once a filter cake had formed on the filter, the pressure of the gaseous helium was raised in successive increments and, after each increment, the c-axis layer spacing(s) was determined by X-ray diffraction. Increasing the concentration of 1,4-dioxane caused some of the fully expanded layers to collapse to the partially expanded state (c-axis spacing = 15 Å) and appeared to cause the remaining fully expanded layers to move farther apart, especially at the higher pressures. Alternative explanations were given for these apparently contradictory results.