Effects of Layer Charge, Charge Location, and Energy Change on Expansion Properties of Dioctahedral Smectites

Tsutomu Sato1, Takashi Watanabe2 and Ryohei Otsuka1
1 Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169 Japan
2 Department of Geoscience, Joetsu University of Education Yamayasbiki, Joetsu, Niigata, 943 Japan

Abstract: Expansion properties of ten homoionic smectites that differed in amount and location of layer charge were examined by X-ray powder diffraction analysis at various relative humidities, or after glycerol or ethylene glycol solvations. Except for K-samples with glycerol solvation, and Na- and Ca-samples with ethylene glycol, differences in the basal spacings are observed in samples having similar layer charge. These results show that the basal spacings are larger when the layer charge is located in octahedral sites than when it is in tetrahedral sites. This suggests that expansion is due to the combined effects of the charge location and amount.

The effects of layer charge magnitude and location on expansion were represented by an energy change (expansion energy: ΔEr) during the hydration and solvation processes. Plots of basal spacings versus ΔEr show a reasonable relationship; the spacings generally decrease stepwise as the value of ΔEr increases. The basal spacings of K-samples with glycerol solvation, Na-saturated and K-saturated samples at 100% RH are apt to contract stepwise with increasing value of ΔEr. For these samples, the figures showing the relationship between each expanded phase and the charge characteristics are obtained from the isoquants of ΔEr, given the boundary of the expanded phases. A behavior test using these figures may be combined with the Greene-Kelly test to estimate the amount and the location of the layer charge of common smectites.

Key Words: Charge location • Ethylene glycol • Expanded phase • Expansion energy • Glycerol • Layer charge • Relative humidity • Smectite

Clays and Clay Minerals; February 1992 v. 40; no. 1; p. 103-113; DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.1992.0400111
© 1992, The Clay Minerals Society
Clay Minerals Society (www.clays.org)