Influence of Calcium and Sodium Concentration on the Microstructure of Bentonite and Kaolin

Janusz Stawiński1, Jacek Wierzchoś1 and Maria Teresa Garcia-Gonzalez2
1 Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences 20236 Lublin, ul.Doświadczalna 4, Poland
2 Instituto de Edafologia y Biologia Vegetal Madrid 6, c/Serrano 115 bis, Spain

Abstract: The influence of added sodium and calcium nitrate electrolyte on the particle aggregates in the colloid fraction of natural bentonite and kaolin was studied. Clays were flocculated in distilled water and various electrolyte concentrations. Aggregate size was studied by sedimentation analysis; the mean radius of the aggregates was plotted against the concentrations of Na+ and Ca2+ For bentonite, the mean radii decreased with an increase of Na+ and Ca2+ concentration, reaching a minimum; and further increases in concentration led to an increase of the mean radii of the aggregates. For kaolin, an increase in Na+ and Ca2+ concentration gave rise to an increase in the mean radii of aggregates.

Scanning electron micrographs showed different types of aggregates, depending on the physico-chemical conditions of a sedimentation process. In bentonite and kaolin sediments formed from a distilled water slurry, the dominant aggregate was an edge-face type. The small addition of salts to a bentonite slurry led to the formation of edge-edge-type aggregates; for kaolin edge-face-type aggregates formed, although within the microaggregate face-face associations were observed. The highest concentrations of electrolytes for sediments of both clays led to formation of compact, face-face-type aggregates.

Key Words: Aggregation • Bentonite • Electrolyte • Flocculation • Kaolin • Scanning electron microscopy

Clays and Clay Minerals; December 1990 v. 38; no. 6; p. 617-622; DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.1990.0380607
© 1990, The Clay Minerals Society
Clay Minerals Society (www.clays.org)