Polarized Single-Crystal Fourier-Transform Infrared Microscopy of Ouray Dickite and Keokuk Kaolinite

C. T. Johnston1, S. F. Agnew2 and D. L. Bish3
1 Department of Soil Science, 2169 McCarty Hall, University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611
2 INC-4 Mail Stop C346
3 EES-1 Mail Stop D469 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545

Abstract: Single-crystal Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of Keokuk kaolinite and Ouray dickite were obtained with an FTIR microscope. Although numerous IR, FTIR, and Raman spectra of polycrystalline kaolinite and dickite can be found in the literature, the present data represent the first reported single-crystal vibrational spectra for these clay minerals. The orientation of the crystallographic axes of dickite was determined using a cross-polarizing optical microscope fitted with an 550-nm optical retardation plate. Assignment of the inner hydroxyl group OH1 to the 3623-cm-1 hand was confirmed, and the angle of this OH group to the b-axis was determined to be 47° based upon the measured dichroic ratio. The 3702–3710-cm-1 absorption feature appeared to consist of two closely spaced hands having slightly different polarization behavior. The inner-surface hydroxyl group OH3 was assigned to the absorption bands at 3710 cm-1. The calculated angle of the OH3 groups to the b-axis was found to be 22°, which agrees well with the angles determined by X-ray powder diffraction and neutron diffraction. The remaining hydroxyl groups, OH2 and OH4, were assigned to the 3656 cm-1 band; the angle of the OH2 and OH4 groups to the b-axis was measured at 45°. The polarization behavior of the OH-deformation bands of dickite at 911, 937, and 952 cm-1 was found to be similar to that observed in the OH-stretching region. Single-crystal FTIR spectra of Keokuk kaolinite showed that rotation of the electric vector around the c/z axis in the ab plane of kaolinite resulted in a behavior distinct from that of dickite. The OH-stretching bands of kaolinite were found to be considerably more polarized than the corresponding bands of dickite. This is related directly to the fact that dickite possesses a glide plane (space group Cc) compared with kaolinite, which does not (space group C1).

Key words: Crystal structure • Dickite • Fourier-transform infrared microscopy • Hydroxyl orientation • Kaolinite • Single crystal

Clays and Clay Minerals; December 1990 v. 38; no. 6; p. 573-583; DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.1990.0380602
© 1990, The Clay Minerals Society
Clay Minerals Society (www.clays.org)