Growth of Clay Minerals in Natural and Synthetic Glasses

Kazue Tazaki1, W. S. Fyfe2 and S. J. van der Gaast3
1 Department of Geology, Shimane University, Nishikawatsu Matsue, Shimane, Japan 690
2 Department of Geology, University of Western Ontario London, Ontario N6A 5B7, Canada
3 Netherland Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands

Abstract: High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has shown regions of crystallites within noncrystalline matrices of three types of glass (volcanic glass, alkalic igneous glass, and synthetic, nuclear-waste-form glass) The volcanic glass fragments showed domains having 3-Å spacings. About 30% of the fragments of this glass showed localized lattice images, having spacings of 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 16, 19, and 20 Å, which also contain regular fringes having 3.3-Å separations. In the alkalic igneous glass fragments 3-Å domain structures were also noted as were localized lattice images having 7- and 12.5-Å spacings. Well-developed hollow spheres of primitive clays were present in both the volcanic and alkalic igneous glasses. Synthetic, nuclear-waste-form glass, fused at 1400°C and annealed at 550°C, showed locally ordered regions having 3.3-Å spacings. Low-angle X-ray powder diffraction showed major reflections at 8.5, 15–16, and 19 Å, which agree with some of the HRTEM measurements. These observations of domain structures, localized lattice images, primitive clays, and 14-Å clays in such noncrystalline glass matrices may contribute to an understanding of the growth of clay minerals. Such domains can apparently trigger the growth of clay products on the glass substrate.

Key Words: Crystallization • Domain structure • Glass • High-resolution transmission electron microscopy • Noncrystalline • Primitive clay

Clays and Clay Minerals; August 1989 v. 37; no. 4; p. 348-354; DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.1989.0370408
© 1989, The Clay Minerals Society
Clay Minerals Society (www.clays.org)