Abstract: Clay and zeolite mineral assemblages were determined for five deep wells in volcano-clastic sediments (Japan) and for one well in mudstones (California). The clay mineral suites in these wells showed a gradual change with depth of illite/smectite (I/S) composition, which increases in smectite content in the upper portion towards a fully expandable mineral (2–3-km depth) and then decreases in smectite content with depth (2–5 km). The temperature of transformation or recrystallization to a fully expandable smectite mineral is about 60°–70°C in non-zeolite bearing rocks and 70°–90°C in zeolite-bearing rocks, with no apparent dependence on time. Comparison is made between the I/S smectite content in the lower part of the wells (i.e., below the occurrence of the fully expandable mineral) and the zeolite mineral zone boundaries. The 60% smectite composition was found at 108°–118°C maximum burial temperatures. The zeolite II/III zone boundary, i.e., the onset of the analcime zone, occurs between 85° and 95°C and may be slightly time-related in the span of 1–15 Ma. The clay and zeolite minerals can be used as temperature indicators in the range of the Neogene age.