Abstract: The clay and bulk mineralogy of soil and till from 26 Adirondack watersheds was studied. The materials consist typically of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, mica, vermiculite, and kaolinite. Talc, smectite, halloysite, and hornblende are present in some samples. The clay fraction of the soils is composed predominantly of vermiculite, likely derived from the transformation of a mica precursor, and kaolinite. The soil vermiculite commonly contains hydroxy-Al interlayers which are especially prevalent in the B-horizon samples. Despite significant variation in the type of bedrock and the composition of heavy mineral assemblages in these watersheds, the clay mineralogy is remarkably uniform. This finding supports earlier suggestions that the occurrence of vermiculite in soils is more dependent on climate than on the nature of the parent material.