Abstract: Hydroxide and oxyhydroxide products of aluminum were formed at room temperature at an initial Al concentration of 2 × 10−3 M, pH 8.2, and at varying concentrations of organic and inorganic ligands commonly found in nature. The effectiveness of the ligands in promoting the formation of noncrystalline products over crystalline Al(OH)3 polymorphs was found to be in the following order: phthalate ≅ succinate < glutamate < aspartate < oxalate < silicate ≅ fluoride < phosphate < salicylate ≅ malate < tannate < citrate < tartrate. The lowest ligand/Al molar ratio at which the production oral hydroxides or oxyhydroxides was inhibited ranged from 0.02 to 15. Above critical ligand/Al ratios, crystalline products were inhibited and ligands coprecipitated with noncrystalline products which remained unchanged for at least 5 months. Polydentate and large ligands generally were more inhibitive than those with fewer functional groups or of smaller size.
The perturbing ligands promoted and stabilized the formation of pseudoboehmite over crystalline Al(OH)3 polymorphs in the following sequence: chloride < sulfate < phthalate ≅ succinate < glutamate < silicate < aspartate < phosphate < salicylate ≅ malate < tannate < citrate < tartrate. The optimal range of the ligand/Al molar ratios for the formation of pseudoboehmite varied, for example, from 0.005–0.015 for tartrate to 600–1000 for chloride. Pseudoboehmite was not formed in the presence of fluoride.