The Interaction Between Roundup (Glyphosate) and Montmorillonite. Part II. Ion Exchange and Sorption of Iso-Propylammonium by Montmorillonite

S. Shoval and S. Yariv1
Department of Geology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
1 On sabbatical leave at Laboratorio Fisico-Química de Materiales, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas.

Abstract: The adsorption mechanism of iso-propylammonium (PAH+), the cationic component of Roundup, by various homoionic montmorillonites and the structures of the associations obtained in the interlayer space were investigated, using infrared, X-ray, and carbon analysis methods. Adsorption from aqueous and ethanol solutions of Roundup was studied. The infrared spectra were compared with those obtained by the treatment of montmorillonites with ethanol and CCl4 solutions of the free iso-propylamine (PA). The adsorption of PA from ethanol gives rise to protonation of the amine. PA sorbed from CCl4 solution forms an ammonium-amine association. Adsorption of PAH+ from alcohol solution of Roundup occurs by the mechanism of cation exchange. With transition metal exchangeable cations, PAH+ is sorbed in excess, forming hydrogen bonds between NH3+ groups and hydroxyls resulting from dissociation of water molecules. The process of adsorption of PAH+ from aqueous solutions of Roundup depends on the concentration of the solution. If montmorillonite is reacted with 0.5% solution of Roundup, PAH+ is adsorbed by exchanging metal cations and the adsorption capacity of the clay does not exceed the c.e.c. If the montmorillonite is reacted with 5.0% solution of Roundup, the PAH+ exchanges protons originating from the hydrolysis of the interlayer water. Protons which are transferred from the interlayer space to the water solution are accepted by the anion component of Roundup. The amounts of PAH+ adsorbed from concentrated Roundup solutions are much higher than the cation exchange capacity of montmorillonite. Hydrogen bonds are formed between the ammonium and water or hydroxyl groups on the interlayer space. With the trivalent exchange ions Al and Fe, which tend to polymerize in the interlayer space, excess sorption gives rise to hydrogen bonding of NH3+ to oxygen of the polymer.

Key Words: Adsorption • Exchange • Glyphosate • Herbicide • Iso-propylammonium • Montmorillonite

Clays and Clay Minerals; February 1979 v. 27; no. 1; p. 29-38; DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.1979.0270104
© 1979, The Clay Minerals Society
Clay Minerals Society (www.clays.org)