Abstract: Kaolinites of all kinds (fine, ‘fireclay,’ ‘type IV,’ etc.), some of which do not expand or expand incompletely with the usual intercalation methods used for comparison, are expanded completely by treatment of dry (110°C) clay with dry CsCl salt, followed by contact with hydrazine for 1 day at 65°C and then with DMSO overnight at 90°C. Comparison treatments were grinding in KOAc, soaking in hydrazine, and Li-DMSO, as well as combination of these. Following the Cs-hydrazine-DMSO treatment, the 7.2 Å spacing of 1:1 dioctahedral layer silicates shifts to 11.2 Å and the 11.2 Å/(7.2 + 11.2 Å) ratio ≃1.0. The trioctahedral 1:1 layer silicates and chlorite are not expanded by the Cs-hydrazine-DMSO procedure.