Thermal Decomposition of Organo-Ammonium Compounds Exchanged onto Montmorillonite and Hectorite

Chung Chi Chou and James L. McAtee Jr.
Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76703

Abstract: A series of organic ammonium ions were exchanged onto clay minerals montmorillonite and hectorite. Thermal effects on these surface modified organic-inorganic complexes were investigated by means of differential thermal analysis and heating-oscillating X-ray diffraction methods. It was found that the organo-clay complexes were dehydrogenated at temperatures from 180 to 350°C, depending on the organic cation used. Following the dehydrogenation, hydrolysis took place leaving a layer of “carbon” on the clay surface. The “carbon” was then oxidized at a temperature of about 550°C. Investigation of possible correlations between the activation energy of dehydrogenation and basicity, boiling point, ionization potential, molecular structure, and carbon-carbon bond distances of the organic cations showed that the geometric factors outweighed the acid, chemical and electronic factors in determining the effect of montmorillonite and hectorite toward the dehydrogenation of organic ions exchanged on the surfaces of these clay minerals.

Clays and Clay Minerals; December 1969 v. 17; no. 6; p. 339-346; DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.1969.0170603
© 1969, The Clay Minerals Society
Clay Minerals Society (www.clays.org)