Abstract: The process of deformation in clays is visualized as the combination of recoverable deformation resulting from bending and rotation of individual particles and irrecoverable deformation due to relative movement between adjacent particles at their points of contact. The relative movement between particles is treated as a rate process in which interparticle bonds are continually broken and reformed as the deformation proceeds. Accordingly, the rate of deformation is governed by the activation energy associated with the rupture of interparticle bonds. Thus, in terms of a rheological model, the fundamental element consists of a spring, representing the recoverable deformation, in series with a rate process dashpot representing the irrecoverable deformation.
Owing to the heterogeneous nature of the fabric of clay soils, i.e. varying particle size, shape, orientation, surface characteristics, etc., a wide range of activation energies, elastic stiffness, and other material properties is anticipated. This is accounted for by assuming a Gaussian distribution for the model properties. Thus, the complete rheological model postulated in this study consists of a combination of spring and dashpot elements covering the complete spectrum of model properties.
The response of the rheological model is analyzed for creep and constant strain-rate loading. The analysis is accomplished numerically using a digital computer since no closed form solution exists for the non-linear systems of equations that result from this model. Experimental data for a number of triaxial tests on clays under various conditions of loading are presented for comparison with the model behavior.