Abstract: The effect of varying concentrations of Al3+ and H+ upon the simultaneous diffusion of 85Sr and 86Rb was measured in salt-free aliquots of clay having different Al:H ratios. The Sr and Rb saturation of the CEC was held constant while the exchangeable Al and H were varied from Al52:H1 to Al12:H34. Aliquots of each clay-treatment were dually tagged with 85Sr and 86Rb. Self-diffusion of Sr and Rb was measured at 4, 24, 48, and 75°C. Radioassay of 85Sr and 86Rb was made with an automatic gamma-detection system equipped with a 400 channel analyzer and card punch unit. The self-diffusion equation was programmed for the 7040 computer to permit the simultaneous calculation of 85Sr and 88Rb self-diffusion coefficients. Rb diffusion was not significantly altered as the Al3+ concentration was increased from 12 to 52 per cent. The diffusion of Sr was significantly increased as Al3+ increased from 12 to 52 per cent. The faster diffusing Rb ion had a greater energy of activation than Sr (4·8 to 3·6 kcal/mole), however the Arrhenius frequency factor for Rb (a measure of the probability of ion exchange) was much greater for Rb than Sr (28·8 and 0·4 × 10−4, respectively). Altering the Rb and Sr saturation and the complementary ions resulted in changes in the diffusivity, the energy of activation, and the frequency factor for these ions, but not always in the same direction or to the same degree.