Abstract: Kaolins are used in a multiplicity of industries because of unique physical and chemical properties. Shape, particle size, color, softness, and non-abrasiveness are physical properties that are especially important. Chemical properties, such as comparatively low base exchange capacity, as well as other chemical properties of the kaolin surface, and relative insolubility, are governing in many uses. In 1960, well over 2,000,000 tons of kaolin was used in the United States, more than one-half of which was consumed by the paper industry. The relationships between physical and chemical properties are discussed in the application of kaolin to paper, rubber, ceramics, plastics, ink, catalysis, insecticides, and numerous other uses. A few new uses of kaolin are discussed along with a short gaze into a crystal ball to see what the future may hold for that useful mineral, kaolin.