Source Clays

By the early 1970's the need for sources of homogeneous clay samples had become apparent to researchers. Natural deposits are so variable that data generated by different investigators working at the same outcrop often cannot be compared with confidence. Thus the Clay Minerals Society set up the Source Clays Project.

  • History of Source Clays Project

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    Source Clays Project Background

    For more information, see the interesting article "The Origin and Development of the Source Clays Program" contributed by William F. Moll

    By the early 1970's the need for sources of homogeneous clay samples had become apparent to researchers. Natural deposits are so variable that data generated by different investigators working at the same outcrop often cannot be compared with confidence. Thus the Clay Minerals Society set up the Source Clays Project.

    The Society's Source Clays Repository offers two series of materials, the Source Clays and the Special Clays.

    The Source Clays are derived from large, reasonably homogenized stocks. Thus, over the years, data on these reference materials can be compared. The samples have been carefully selected from the source deposits by professionals to minimize in situ variations. Because any beneficiation technique can bring about changes in properties, pre-treatment usually involves only low-temperature, steam-fired tray drying, and imp or Raymond mill pulverization. Each original sample consisted of one metric ton.

    The Special Clays are rare but of great theoretical interest. No attempt has been made to homogenize or beneficiate them.

    Starting in 2015, The Society's Source Clay Repository also sells the leftover reference mineral mixtures from the Reynolds Cup contests. The materials, RC_Mineral_Mixtures, are useful for checking analytical procedures.

  • Source Clays and Special Clays

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    The price of a unit of clay is US $ 75.00. Unit size varies depend on the clay type and you will find the unit sizes listed in the order form. Shipping charges are additional. Clay orders are shipped once a week. Extra payments for faster shipments will apply from the day of shipping not the date of payment. Please contact G.S. Premachandra at sourceclays@purdue.edu (voice: 765 494 4258 or FAX: 765 496 2926) for more information about these charges.

    The clays offered by the Source Clays Project change frequently because of new acquisitions and depletion of old supplies. The Source Clays Project is always grateful for new acquisitions, particularly of clays that have become depleted. If you are able to provide access to a new source of source or special clays, please contact the curator.

    The following Source Clays are completely depleted. We would appreciate information on new sources or suppliers of the following materials:

    CorWa-1 Corrensite, Packwood, Washington (Ohanapecosh Form.) Altered Eocene tuff, containing 25-50% corrensite; quartz and plagioclase impurities separable by wet sedimentation. Need new supplier.

    NG-1 Nontronite, Hohen Hagen, Germany, Nontronite-cemented sand (15-20% nontronite), easily separated by wet sedimentation (Char. by Schneiderhoehn, Tschermaks Min. u. Pet. Mitt., 10, 385-399, 1965). Need new supplier.

    SepNev-1 Sepiolite, Two Crows, Nevada (pub. ref Clays and Clay Minerals, v. 26, p. 58-64, 1978). Need new supplier.

    VTx-1 Vermiculite, Llano, Texas, USA, a mixture of magnesite, phlogopite, and vermiculite. The vermiculite can be separated by hand picking. Plans are being made to replace.

  • General information on RC reference mixtures

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    The samples labeled with RCx_y are mixtures prepared from purified reference minerals, representing clay-bearing rocks, soils or raw materials in the broadest sense. The materials were designed for testing the performance of methods in qualitative and quantitative mineral phase analysis in previous Reynolds Cup contests

    The organizers made great efforts to prepare homogeneous and well defined samples. However, as absolutely pure minerals are hard to obtain in amounts suitable for preparing some hundred grams of mixture, some minor impurities of the reference materials must be taken into account. Of course the degree of purity varies between the different reference materials, but in total the accuracy of the given mineralogical composition of a single sample can be estimated to be better than 1 % absolute bias. This means that the uncertainty of the percentage of a component should not be bigger than 1 % relatively for the major constituents and 0.1 % absolutely for the trace minerals.

    The aliquots of the sample mixtures have been tested carefully for representativeness by XRF and XRD analysis. These data are available on request. But according to the limited amount of 2-4 grams, the delivered samples cannot be split further into subsamples without additional milling and homogenization.

    Some samples contain sensitive minerals like bassanite, halite, pyrite or nahcolite as minor constituents. Their stability cannot be guaranteed during handling and long-time storage.

    In general, please note that the mixtures are not prepared and checked in a complete procedure of certification. Therefore, there is no warranty for the trueness of the mineralogical composition as given in the data sheets. The Clay Minerals Society hereby explicitly excludes all responsibility for the usability of the mixtures in any calibration or test procedure.

    Rate: US$ 250 per unit (2-4 grams)

    Samples available:

    RC5_1 Type: Clay-rich sediment from an evaporate environment

    RC5_2 Type: Clay that might be encountered in a hydrothermal alteration

    RC5_3 Type: Clay-rich soil formed on a parent material rich in ferromagnesian minerals and amorphous soil minerals

    RC6_1 Type: Petroleum shale

    RC6_2 Type: Ni laterite profile

    RC6_3 Type: Bauxite profile



    RC7_1 Type: Sulphate rock (Gypsifereous Keuper)

    RC7_2 Type: Bentonite, sodium activated

    RC7_3 Type: Kaolin clay

    Mixture RC5_1

    Type: Clay-rich sediment from an evaporate environment
    Nominal composition:

    Mineral

    Mass%

    Quartz

    5.5

    Albite

    5.0

    Calcite

    6.0

    Dolomite-ferroan

    6.8

    Magnesite

    5.1

    Anhydrite

    5.2

    Gypsum

    5.1

    Arcanite

    2.7

    Halite

    2.9

    Talc

    11.8

    Montmorillonite

    5.1

    Smectite (trioctahedral)

    1.0

    Corrensite

    4.1

    Sepiolite

    18.7

    Palygorskite

    15.2

    Mixture RC5_2

    Type: Clay that might be encountered in a hydrothermal alteration
    Nominal composition:

    Mineral

    Mass%

    Quartz

    2.2

    Microcline

    8.2

    Albite

    0.5

    Gibbsite

    9.6

    Anatase

    2.3

    Calcite

    0.1

    Huntite

    5.0

    Barite

    2.4

    Barite Sr-rich

    3.5

    Alunite

    10.7

    Fluorite

    1.9

    Pyrite

    0.1

    Kaolinite (disordered)

    14.3

    Halloysite (10Å)

    19.9

    Illite-smectite (dioctahedral) I0.75/S0.25 R1

    14.3

    Muscovite 2M1

    5.1

    Mixture RC5_3

    Type: Clay-rich soil formed on a parent material rich in ferromagnesian minerals and amorphous soil minerals
    Nominal composition:

    Mineral

    Mass%

    Quartz

    9.7

    Actinolite

    4.0

    Epidote

    4.0

    Goethite

    7.8

    Birnessite

    2.0

    Anatase

    0.1

    High Mg-calcite

    9.0

    Aragonite

    3.0

    Allophane

    10.3

    2-line ferrihydrite

    7.9

    Tourmaline

    0.3

    Talc

    0.1

    Kaolinite (disordered)

    6.6

    Mica (dioctahedral)

    0.1

    Saponite

    5.1

    Biotite

    4.4

    Vermiculite (trioctahedral)

    11.2

    Chlorite (trioctahedral)

    14.2

    Mixture RC6_1

    Type: Petroleum shale
    Nominal composition:

    Mineral

    Mass%

    Quartz

    11.1

    Orthoclase

    1.8

    Albite

    5.8

    Pyrite

    2.0

    Halite

    5.0

    Calcite

    9.7

    Dolomite/ankerite

    0.3

    Mg-siderite

    5.0

    Barite (Sr)

    4.0

    Anatase

    0.3

    Kaolinite (ordered)

    6.9

    Montmorillonite

    15.0

    Illite-smectite (dioctahedral) I0.7/S0.3 R1 ordered

    11.0

    Illite 1Md (Fe-rich)

    10.0

    Muscovite 2M1

    12.1

    Mixture RC6_2

    Type: Ni laterite profile

    Mineral

    Mass%

    Quartz

    16.3

    Microcline

    5.7

    Orthoclase

    0.1

    Albite

    4.8

    Goethite

    6.3

    Hematite

    9.4

    Magnetite

    5.3

    Magnesite

    5.2

    Talc

    5.0

    Kaolinite (disordered)

    7.4

    Nontronite

    13.6

    Lizardite

    7.7

    Biotite

    6.2

    Chlorite (trioctahedral)

    7.0

    Mixture RC6_3

    Type: Bauxite profile

    Mineral

    Mass%

    Quartz

    3.8

    Goethite

    5.7

    Hematite

    6.8

    Magnetite

    02

    Gibbsite

    10.7

    Boehmite

    7.6

    Anatase

    1.2

    Rutile

    3.8

    Ilmenite

    3.5

    Zircon

    2.9

    Gamma-alumina

    5.7

    2-line ferrihydrite

    5.6

    Kaolinite (disordered)

    13.2

    Halloysite (7Å)

    22.6

    Muscovite 2M1

    6.7

    Mixture RC7_1


    Type: Sulphate rock (Gypsifereous Keuper)
    Nominal composition:

    Mineral

    Mass%

    Quartz

    5.1

    Orthoclase/adularia

    2.0

    Albite

    2.1

    Oligoclase

    1.0

    Pyrite

    1.9

    Hematite

    1.0

    Gypsum

    21.8

    Anhydrite

    22.7

    Bassanite

    1.1

    Calcite

    2.4

    Dolomite

    16.5

    Magnesite

    2.6

    Rutile

    1.1

    Tourmaline

    0.7

    Apatite

    1.1

    Celestine

    1.3

    Amphibole (hornblende)

    1.4

    Ca-Montmorillonite

    2.4

    Illite-smectite (dioctahedral) I0.88/S0.12 R3 ordered

    2.4

    Muscovite 2M1

    2.4

    Biotite

    1.2

    Chlorite (trioctahedral)

    5.8

    Mixture RC7_2


    Type: Bentonite, sodium activated
    Nominal composition:

    Mineral

    Mass%

    Quartz

    7.3

    Microcline

    2.4

    Orthoclase/adularia

    3.4

    Albite

    6.2

    Oligoclase

    1.5

    Pyrite

    0.8

    Gypsum

    1.3

    Calcite

    2.5

    Anatase

    1.2

    Rutile

    1.2

    Heulandite

    2.2

    Nahcolite

    2.5

    Cristobalite

    3.9

    silica

    9.2

    Ca-montmorillonite

    29.4

    Na-montmorillonite

    10.8

    Illite-cmectite (dioctahedral) I0.7/S0.3 R1 ordered

    4.6

    Illite 1Md

    2.6

    Muscovite 2M1

    5.1

    Chlorite (trioctahedral)

    1.9

    Mixture RC7_3


    Type: Kaolin clay
    Nominal composition:

    Mineral

    Mass%

    Quartz

    19.9

    Orthoclase/adularia

    4.0

    Albite

    2.0

    Pyrite

    1.8

    Goethite

    1.6

    Hematite

    1.4

    Magnetite

    1.0

    Gibbsite

    2.1

    Boehmite

    8.3

    Anatase

    3.0

    Tourmaline

    0.8

    Zircon

    1.2

    2-line ferrihydrite

    2.0

    Kaolinite (ordered)

    1.9

    Kaolinite (disordered)

    20.6

    Halloysite (7«∫)

    11.2

    Ca-montmorillonite

    2.7

    Illite-smectite (dioctahedral) I0.7/S0.3 R1 ordered

    5.0

    Muscovite 2M1

    8.2

    Chlorite (trioctahedral)

    1.5

  • Buy Source Clays

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    Available Source Clays

    SOURCE CLAYS (Powder) ORDER ONLINE

    Sold at $75.00 per unit

    KGa-1b (125 grm/unit) Kaolin, low-defect, Warren County, Georgia, USA

    KGa-2 (125 grm/unit) Kaolin, high-defect, Warren County, Georgia, USA

    PFl-1 (125 grm/unit) Palygorskite, Gadsden County, Florida, USA

    SHCa-1 (250 grm/unit) Hectorite, San Bernardino County, California, USA

    STx-1b (250 grm/unit) Ca-rich Montmorillonite (White), Gonzales County, Texas, USA

    SWy-3 (250 grm/unit) Na-rich Montmorillonite, Crook County, Wyoming, USA

    SYn-1 (250 grm/unit) Barasym SSM-100, synthetic mica-montmorillonite (NL industries)

  • Buy Special Clays

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    Available Special Clays

    SPECIAL CLAYS (Rock chips) ORDER ONLINE

    Sold in units for $75.00 per unit

    CCa-2 (50 grm/unit) Ripidolite (chlorite), FlagstaffHill, ElDorado County, California, USA

    RAr-1 (50 grm/unit) Rectorite (regular mixed layer),Garland County,Arkansas, USA. Pure flakes with some minute euhedral quartz crystals.

    SYnH-1 (50 grm/unit) Optigel SH, Synthetic hectorite,Sud-Chemie Rheologicals (United Catalysts Inc.).

    SYnL-1 (50 grm/unit) Laponite RD, Synthetic layered silicate, Southern Clay Products Inc.

    SCa-3 (50 grm/unit) Montmorillonite ("Otay"), Otay SanDiego County, California. USA

    SAz-2 (50 grm/unit) Ca-Montmorillonite ("Cheto") in natural chunk form, Apache County, Arizona, USA

    IMt-2 (50 grm/unit) Illite, Silver Hill, Mont.(Cambrian shale) 1 Md. Char. by Hower, et al., Amer. Min. 51, p.825-854,1966)

    ISCz-1 (50 grm/unit) Illite-smectite mixed layer (70/30 ordered), Slovakia.

    NAu-1 (50 grm/unit) Nontronite, green color, Al-enriched, From Uley Mine, South Australia, Collected and supplied by John Keeling, Mark Raven, and Will Gates, CSIRO.

    NAu-2 (50 grm/unit) Nontronite, brown color, Al-poor,contains tetrahedral Fe, From Uley Mine, South Australia, Collected and supplied by John Keeling, Mark Raven, and Will Gates, CSIRO.

    NG-1 (10 grm/unit) Nontronite, Hohen Hagen, Germany. Nontronite cemented sand (15-20% nontronite), easily separated by wet sedimentation (charact. by Schneiderhoehn, Tschermaks Min. u. Pet. Mitt.10, p.385-399,1965)

    SepSp-1 (50 grm/unit) Sepiolite, Valdemore, Spain (Miocene age,contains minor calcite)

    SBId-1 (50 grm/unit) Beidellite, Idaho, USA

    CAr-1 (10 grm/unit) Cookeite, Arkansas, USA (Cookeite flakes scattered on surface of rock chips)

    The following special clays are no longer available:

    IMt-1 (50 grm/unit) Illite, Silver Hill, Mont.(Cambrian shale)

    SWa-1 (50 grm/unit) Ferruginous Smectite, Grant County,Washington,USA

    VTx-1 (50 grm/unit) Vermiculite ("Llano"), Llano, Texas, USA. A mixture of magnesite, phlogopite and vermiculite. The vermiculite can be separated with hand picking.

    IWi-1 (50 grm/unit) Illite, Waukesha,Wisconsin, USA (Silurian),

    ISMt-1 (50 grm/unit) Illite-smectite mixed layer (60/40 ordered),Mancos shale Cretaceous.

    CorWa-1 (50 grm/unit) Corrensite, Pachwook, WA. (Ohanapecosh form.). (Altered Eocene tuff, containing 25-50% corrensite; quartz and plagioclase impurities separable by wet sedimentation)

    SapCa-2 (50 grm/unit) Saponite, Ballarat, CA. (contains up to 3%diopside, separable by wet sedimentation

    SepNev-1 (50 grm/unit) Sepiolite, Two Crows, Nevada (pub.ref.:Clays & Clay Minerals, v.26, p.58-64, 1978)

    SBCa-1 (50 grm/unit) Beidellite, California, USA

    SAz-1 (Not available until new stocks arrive) Ca-rich Montmorillonite ("Cheto"), Apache County, Arizona, USA

  • Source Clay References

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    Baseline Studies of The Clay Minerals Society Source Clays

    SPECIAL CLAYS (Rock chips) ORDER ONLINE

    The articles from a special issue of Clays and Clay Minerals linked below are available to download, free of charge.

    Other articles containing data on clays from the Source Clays Repository

    MSDS data sheets for CMS Repository clays



    P.M. Costanzo and S. Guggenheim
    BASELINE STUDIES OF THE CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY SOURCE CLAYS: PREFACE
     371.  

    Patricia M. Costanzo
    BASELINE STUDIES OF THE CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY SOURCE CLAYS: INTRODUCTION
     372-373.    

    William F. Moll, Jr.
    BASELINE STUDIES OF THE CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY SOURCE CLAYS: GEOLOGICAL ORIGIN
     374-380.    

    Ahmet R. Mermut and Angel Faz Cano
    BASELINE STUDIES OF THE CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY SOURCE CLAYS: CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF MAJOR ELEMENTS
     381-386.

    Jessica Elzea Kogel and Susan A. Lewis
    BASELINE STUDIES OF THE CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY SOURCE CLAYS: CHEMICAL ANALYSIS BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-MASS SPECTROSCOPY (ICP-MS)
     387-392.     

    Ahmet R. Mermut and G. Lagaly
    BASELINE STUDIES OF THE CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY SOURCE CLAYS: LAYER-CHARGE DETERMINATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THOSE MINERALS CONTAINING 2:1 LAYERS
     393-397.   

    Steve J. Chipera and David L. Bish
    BASELINE STUDIES OF THE CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY SOURCE CLAYS: POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSES
     398-409.     

    Jana Madejov‡ and Peter Komadel
    BASELINE STUDIES OF THE CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY SOURCE CLAYS: INFRARED METHODS
     410-432.     

    Stephen Guggenheim and A.F. Koster van Groos
    BASELINE STUDIES OF THE CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY SOURCE CLAYS: THERMAL ANALYSIS
     433-443.     

    D. Borden and R. F. Giese
    BASELINE STUDIES OF THE CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY SOURCE CLAYS: CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY MEASUREMENTS BY THE AMMONIA-ELECTRODE METHOD
     444-445.    

    Wenju Wu
    BASELINE STUDIES OF THE CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY SOURCE CLAYS: COLLOID AND SURFACE PHENOMENA
     446-452

    For Source Clay Bibliography

  • Physical and Chemical Data of Source Clays

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    SOURCE CLAY PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL DATA

    Other references, baseline studies and MSDS data sheets

    Listed below are data from Data Handbook for Clay Minerals and OtherNon-metallic Minerals, edited by H.Van Olphena and J.J. Fripiat, publishedby Pergamon Press. The data are available only for source clay minerals,not special clay minerals. Data shown below for special clay minerals are unofficial. To provide updated information, please contact The Clay Minerals Society. email:cms@clays.org.

    SOURCE CLAY MINERALS

    Kaolin KGa-1(KGa-1b), (low-defect)
    ORIGIN: Tuscaloosa formation? (Cretaceous?) (stratigraphy uncertain)
    County of Washington, State of Georgia, USA
    LOCATION: 32o58' N-82o53' W approximately, topographic map Tabernacle, GeorgiaN 3252.5-W 8252.5/7.5, Collected from face of Coss-Hodges pit, October 3,1972.
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 44.2, Al2O3: 39.7, TiO2: 1.39, Fe2O3: 0.13,FeO: 0.08, MnO: 0.002, MgO: 0.03, CaO: n.d., Na2O: 0.013, K2O: 0.05, F:0.013,P2O5: 0.034, Loss on heating: -550oC: 12.6; 550-1000oC: 1.18.
    CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 2.0 meq/100g
    SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 10.05 +/- 0.02 m2/g
    THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherm at 630oC, exotherm at 1015oC, TG: dehydroxylationweight loss 13.11% (theory 14%) indicating less than 7% impurities.
    INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: Typical spectrum for well crystallized kaolinite,however not as well crystallized as a typical China clay from Cornwall,as judged from the intensity of the 3669 cm-1 band. Splitting of the 1100cm- 1 band is due to the presence of coarse crystals.
    STRUCTURE:(Mg.02 Ca.01 Na.01 K.01)[Al3.86 Fe(III).02 Mntr Ti.11][Si3.83Al.17]O10(OH)8, Octahedral charge:.11, Tetrahedral charge:-.17,Interlayer charge:-.06, Unbalanced charge:0.00

    Kaolin KGa-2, (high-defect)
    ORIGIN: Probably lower tertiary (stratigraphic sequence uncertain)
    County of Warren, State of Georgia, USA
    LOCATION: 33o19' N-82o28' W approximately, topographic map Bowdens Pond,Georgia N 3315-W 8222.5/7.5, Collected from face of Purvis pit, October4, 1972.
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 43.9, Al2O3: 38.5, TiO2: 2.08, Fe2O3: 0.98,FeO: 0.15, MnO: n.d., MgO: 0.03, CaO: n.d., Na2O: <0.005, K2O: 0.065,P2O5: 0.045, S: 0.02, Loss on heating: -550oC: 12.6; 550-1000oC: 1.17, F:0.02.
    CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 3.3 meq/100g
    SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 23.50 +/- 0.06 m2/g
    THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherm at 625oC, exotherm at 1005oC, TG: dehydroxylationweight loss 13.14% (theory 14%) indicating less than 7% impurities.
    INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: Typical spectrum for less crystallized kaolinite,however the mineral is not extremely disordered since the band at 3669 cm-1is still present in the spectrum.
    STRUCTURE:(Catr Ktr)[Al3.66 Fe(III).07 Mntr Mgtr Ti.16][Si4.00]O10(OH)8, Octahedral charge:.16, Tetrahedral charge:0.00,Interlayer charge:.16, Unbalanced charge:.15, Extra Si:.04

    Palygorskite(Attapulgite) PFl-1
    ORIGIN: Hawthorne formation (miocene)
    County of Gadsden, State of Florida, USA
    LOCATION: SE 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 10, T 3 N, R 3 W., topographic map Dogtown,Florida (7.5'), Collected at the Luten mine from the first foot of claybed after stripping of overburden, October 13, 1972.
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 60.9, Al2O3: 10.4, TiO2: 0.49, Fe2O3: 2.98,FeO: 0.40, MnO: 0.058, MgO: 10.2, CaO: 1.98, Na2O: 0.058, K2O: 0.80, F:0.542, P2O5: 0.80, S: 0.11, Loss on heating: -550oC: 8.66; 550-1000oC: 1.65.
    CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 19.5 meq/100g
    SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 136.35 +/- 0.31 m2/g
    THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherm at 170oC, exotherm at 905oC, desorptionof water; 230-300, desorption of adsorbed water; 495oC; 550oC,dehydroxylation;840oC . TG: Loss of absorbed water 12.96% (theory 14%), loss of structural water 5.52%.
    INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: The spectrum indicates fairly pure attapulgite.A trace of quartz is detectable (780 and 800 cm-1 ). The spectrum showsconsiderable shifts upon drying of the sample in the OH stretching region(3000-3700 cm-1) and in the Si-O stretching region (1000-1200 cm-1) Theseshifts are reversible.
    STRUCTURE:(Mg.33Ca.62 Na.04 K.13)[Al1.50 Fe(III).52 Fe(II).01 Mn.01 Mg1.91Ti.06][Si7.88 Al.22]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-1.87, Tetrahedral charge:-.22,Interlayer charge:-2.09, Unbalanced charge:0.00

    "Cheto" SAz-1 or SAz-2
    ORIGIN: Bidahochi formation (pliocene)
    County of Apache, State of Arizina, USA
    LOCATION: SE 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 26, T 21 N?, R 29 E., topographic map: Gallup(1:250,000), Collected from pit after overburden was stripped, May 8, 1973.
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 60.4, Al2O3: 17.6, TiO2: 0.24, Fe2O3: 1.42,FeO: 0.08, MnO: 0.099, MgO: 6.46, CaO: 2.82, Na2O: 0.063, K2O: 0.19, F:0.287, P2O5: 0.020, Loss on heating: -550oC: 7.54; 550-1000oC: 2.37.
    CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 120 meq/100g, major exchange cation Ca.
    SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 97.42 +/- 0.58 m2/g
    THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherm at 200oC, exotherm at 1020, 1065, 1160oC,shoulder at 240oC , desorption of water; 685oC, dehydroxylation; shoulderat 895oC. TG: Loss in dehydroxylation range: 4.69% (theory 5.0%).
    INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: The spectrum indicates a low octahedral iron content. A silica phase (band at 790 cm-1) is detectable.
    STRUCTURE:(Ca.39 Na.36 K.02)[Al2.71 Mg1.11 Fe(III).12 Mn.01Ti.03][Si8.00]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-1.08, Tetrahedral charge:0.00,Interlayer charge:-1.08, Unbalanced charge:.08,Extra Si:.01

    Hectorite SHCa-1
    ORIGIN: Red Mountain Andesite formation (pliocene)
    County of San Bernardino, State of California, USA
    LOCATION: NE 1/4 Sec. 27 T8, R5 E; topographic map: Cady Mountains (15'), Collected from plant stockpile, November, 1972. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 34.7, Al2O3: 0.69, TiO2: 0.038, Fe2O3:0.02, FeO: 0.25, MnO: 0.008, MgO: 15.3, CaO: 23.4, Na2O: 1.26, K2O: 0.13,Li2O: 2.18, F: 2.60, P2O5: 0.014, S: 0.01, Loss on heating: -550oC: 1.20;550-1000oC: 20.6.
    According to Steve J. Chipera and David L. Bish in Clays and Clay Minerals, 49 (5), 398-409 (2001), SHCa-1 was found to contain approximately 50% smectite (43% calcite, 3% dolomite, 3% quartz and 1% other).
    CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 43.9 meq/100g.
    SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 63.19 +/- 0.50 m2/g
    THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherms at 165oC, desorption of water: shoulderat 725oC, 795oC, dehydroxylation; 880oC, decarboxylation of carbonate; shoulderat 910oC, 1130oC. TG: Ranges of dehydroxylation and release of CO2 overlap;loss of CO2 above 810oC indicates 27% of carbonate (calcite).
    INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: The spectrum contains strong calcite bands, whichare, however, absent in the fraction <2 um. Quartz is detectable.
    STRUCTURE:(Mg.56 Na.42 K.05)[Mg4.60 Li1.39 MntrTi.01][Si7.75 Al.17 Fe(III).05]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-1.35, Tetrahedral charge:-.22,Interlayer charge:-1.57, Unbalanced charge:.02,24.84% CaCO3 as calcite

    Texas Montmorillonite STx-1
    ORIGIN: Manning formation, Jackson group (eocene)
    County of Gonzales, State of Texas, USA
    LOCATION: 29o30' N, 97o22' W approximately, topographic map: Hamon, Texas,N 2922.5-W 9715/7.5, Collected from face of pit, October 17, 1972.
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 70.1, Al2O3: 16.0, TiO2: 0.22, Fe2O3: 0.65,FeO: 0.15, MnO: 0.009, MgO: 3.69, CaO: 1.59, Na2O: 0.27, K2O: 0.078, F:0.084, P2O5: 0.026, S: 0.04, Loss on heating: -550oC: 3.32; 550-1000oC:3.22, CO2: 0.16.
    CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 84.4 meq/100g, major exchange cation Ca.
    SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 83.79 +/- 0.22 m2/g
    THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherms at 185oC (shoulder at 235oC), desorptionof water: 725oC, dehydroxylation; shoulder at 920oC, exotherms at 1055oC,1065oC, 1135oC. TG: Loss in dehydroxylation range: 3.88% (theory: 5%).
    INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: The spectrum indicates a low iron content. Quartz(697 cm-1), a silica phase (797 cm-1), and a trace of carbonate (1400 cm-1)are detectable.
    STRUCTURE:(Ca.27 Na.04 K.01)[Al2.41 Fe(III).09 Mntr Mg.71Ti..03][Si8.00]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.68, Tetrahedral charge:0.00,Interlayer charge:-.68, Unbalanced charge:-.08,Extra Si:.59

    Na-Montmorillonite (Wyoming) SWy-1(SWy-2)
    ORIGIN: Newcastle formation, (cretaceous)
    County of Crook, State of Wyoming, USA
    LOCATION: NE 1/4 SE 1/4 Sec.18, T 57 N, R 65 W; 8, Topographic map: Seeley(15'), The upper 63 of recently stripped area was removed to expose clean,green upper Newcastle, Collected from which samples was taken, October 3,1972.
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 62.9, Al2O3: 19.6, TiO2: 0.090, Fe2O3:3.35, FeO: 0.32, MnO: 0.006, MgO: 3.05, CaO: 1.68, Na2O: 1.53, K2O: 0.53,F: 0.111, P2O5: 0.049, S: 0.05, Loss on heating: -550oC: 1.59; 550-1000oC:4.47, CO2: 1.33.
    CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): 76.4 meq/100g, principal exchange cationsNa and Ca.
    SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 31.82 +/- 0.22 m2/g
    THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherms at 185oC (shoulder at 235oC), desorptionof water: 755oC, dehydroxylation; shoulder at 810oC, exotherms at 980oC. TG: Loss in dehydroxylation range: 5.53% (theory: 5%).
    INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: Typical spectrum for Wyoming bentonite with a moderateFe+3 content (band at 885 cm-1). Quartz is detectable (band at 780, 800,698, 400, and 373 cm-1), a trace of carbonate (band at 1425 cm-1).
    STRUCTURE:(Ca.12 Na.32 K.05)[Al3.01 Fe(III).41 Mn.01 Mg.54Ti.02][Si7.98 Al.02]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.53, Tetrahedral charge:-.02,Interlayer charge:-.55, Unbalanced charge:.05,

    Barasym SSM-100 Syn-1
    ORIGIN: Synthetic, trade name Barasym SSM-100, Baroid Division, NL Industries,date of manufacture: 1972
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 49.7 Al2O3: 38.2, TiO2: 0.023, Fe2O3: 0.02,MgO: 0.014, Na2O: 0.26, K2O: <0.01, Li2O; 0.25, F: 0.76, P2O5: 0.001,S: 0.10, Loss on heating: -550oC: 8.75; 550-1000oC: 2.4.
    CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC): Barium method ca.70 meq/100g; ammonium methodca. 140 meq/100g.
    SURFACE AREA: N2 area: 133.66 +/- 0.72 m2/g
    THERMAL ANALYSIS: DTA: endotherms at 140oC, desorption of water: 575oC,dehydroxylation; exotherms at 1030oC. TG: The weight loss in dehydroxylationrange: 10.35% due to simultaneous loss of ammonium which is the major exchangecation.
    INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: The spectrum is broadly similar to that of muscoviteand contains bands due to NH4 ( 1432 and 1404 cm-1) and to NH4Br from thereaction in the KBr disk.
    STRUCTURE:(Mg.06 Ca.04 Na.12 Ktr)[Al3.99 Fe(III)tr MntrTitr][Si6.50 Al1.50]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:.01, Tetrahedral charge:-1.50,Interlayer charge:-1.49, Unbalanced charge:-1.17,Extra Al:.40

    SPECIAL CLAY MINERALS

    Ripidolite(Chlorite) CCa-2
    ORIGIN: Flagstaff Hill, El Dorado County, California, USA
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 26.0 Al2O3: 20.0, TiO2: 0.476, Fe2O3:26.6, FeO: 20.8, MnO: 0.1, MgO: 17.2, CaO: 0.25, Na2O:
    <0.1, K2O: ><0.1, P2O5: 0.02, LOI: 9.32>STRUCTURE:(Ca.05)[Mg4.44 Al.60 Fe(III)3.47 Fe(II)3.02 Mn.01Ti.06][Si4.51 Al13.49]O20(OH)16,Lacks Mg:.40

    Montmorillonite (Otay) SCa-3
    ORIGIN: Otay San Diego County, California, USA
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 52.8 Al2O3: 15.7, TiO2: 0.181, Fe2O3:1.06, FeO:
    <0.10, MnO: 0.03, MgO: 7.98, CaO: 0.95, Na2O: 0.92, K2O: 0.03,P2O5: 0.02, LOI: 21.2>STRUCTURE:(Mg.45 Ca.15 Na.26 K.01)[Al2.55 Fe(III).12 Mntr Mg1.31 Ti.02 ][Si7.81 Al.19]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-1.29, Tetrahedral charge:-0.19,Interlayer charge:-1.48, Unbalanced charge:0.00,

    Ferruginous Smectite SWa-1
    ORIGIN: Grant County, Washington, USA
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 43.75 Al2O3: 7.95, TiO2: 0.54, Fe2O3:25.25, FeO: 0, MnO: 0.03, MgO: 1.75, CaO: 2.05, Na2O: 0, K2O: 0.03,P2O5: 0.05, LOI: 19.35
    STRUCTURE:(Mg.18 Ca.36 K.01)[Al.61 Fe(III)3.08 Mntr Mg.24 Ti.07][Si7.09 Al.91]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.18, Tetrahedral charge:-.91,Interlayer charge:-1.09, Unbalanced charge:0.00,

    Vermiculite (Llano) VTx-1
    ORIGIN: Liano County, Texas, USA
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 27.8 Al2O3: 0.59, TiO2: 0.047, Fe2O3:1.12, FeO:
    <0.10, MnO: 0.08, MgO: 29.7, CaO: 14.6, Na2O: ><.01, K2O: 0.03,P2O5: 0.03, LOI: 26.2>STRUCTURE:(Mg2.27 Ca2.92 K.01)[Mg5.98 Mn.01 Ti.01][Si7.71 Al.13Fe(III).16]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:.02, Tetrahedral charge:-0.29,Interlayer charge:-.27, Unbalanced charge:+10.12,Lacks Si:2.53

    Illite IMt-1 and IMt-2
    ORIGIN: Silver Hill, Montana, USA
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 49.3 Al2O3: 24.25, TiO2: 0.55, Fe2O3:7.32, FeO: 0.55, MnO: 0.03, MgO: 2.56, CaO: 0.43, Na2O: 0, K2O: 7.83,P2O5: 0.08, LOI: 8.02
    STRUCTURE:(Mg.09 Ca.06 K1.37)[Al2.69 Fe(III).76 Fe(II).06 Mntr Mg.43 Ti.06][Si6.77 Al1.23]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.44, Tetrahedral charge:-1.23,Interlayer charge:-1.68, Unbalanced charge:0.00

    Illit-Smectite Mixed Layer (60/40 ordered) ISMt-2
    ORIGIN: Mancos shale Cretaceous
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 51.2 Al2O3: 26.3, TiO2: 0.17, Fe2O3:1.49, FeO: 0.1, MnO: 0.01, MgO: 2.41, CaO: 1.4, Na2O: 0.04, K2O: 4.74,P2O5: 0.05, LOI: 12.6
    STRUCTURE:(Mg.05 Ca.21 Na.01 K.84)[Al3.37 Fe(III).16 Fe(II).01 Mntr Mg.45Ti.02][Si7.08 Al.92]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.44, Tetrahedral charge:-.92,Interlayer charge:-1.36, Unbalanced charge:0.00

    Illit-Smectite Mixed Layer (70/30 ordered) ISCz-1
    ORIGIN: Slovakia
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 51.6 Al2O3: 25.6, TiO2: 0.039, Fe2O3:1.11, FeO:
    <0.1, MnO: 0.04, MgO: 2.46, CaO: 0.67, Na2O: 0.32, K2O: 5.36,P2O5: 0.04, LOI: 10.2>STRUCTURE:(Mg.03 Ca.1 Na.09 K.95)[Al3.39 Fe(III).12 Mntr Mg.48Titr][Si7.19 Al.81]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.48, Tetrahedral charge:-.81,Interlayer charge:-1.29, Unbalanced charge:0.00

    Nontronite NG-1
    ORIGIN: Hohen Hagen, Germany
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 45.8 Al2O3: 5.93, TiO2: 0.05, Fe2O3:32.2, FeO: 0, MnO: 0.01, MgO: 1.02, CaO: 1.95, Na2O: 0.03, K2O: 0.13,P2O5: 0.02, LOI: 13.4
    STRUCTURE:(Mg.15 Ca.32 Na.01 K.03)[Fe(III)3.75 Al.17 Mntr Mg.08Ti.01][Si7.08 Al.92]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:-.08, Tetrahedral charge:-.92,Interlayer charge:-.99, Unbalanced charge:0.00

    Corrensite CorWa-1
    ORIGIN: Pachwook, Washington, USA
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 44.0 Al2O3: 15.4, TiO2: 1.26, Fe2O3:13.9, FeO: 4.5, MnO: 0.32, MgO: 6.24, CaO: 3.44, Na2O: 3.44, K2O: 0.59,P2O5: 0.22, LOI: 12.3
    STRUCTURE:(Ca1.2 Na2.17 K.25)[Al4.24 Fe(III)3.41 Fe(II)1.23 Mn.09Mg3.03 Ti.31][Si14.33 Al1.67]O40(OH)20,Octahedral charge:-4.03, Tetrahedral charge:-1.67,Interlayer charge:-5.70, Unbalanced charge:-.88

    Saponite SapCa-2
    ORIGIN: Ballarat, California, USA
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 47.9 Al2O3: 4.17, TiO2: 0.029, Fe2O3:0.66, FeO:
    <0.1, MnO: 0.05, MgO: 26.1, CaO: 0.9, Na2O: 2.73, K2O: 0.39,P2O5: 0.03, LOI: 12.6>STRUCTURE:(Ca1.14 Na.79 K.07)[Mg5.98 Mn.01 Titr][Si7.19 Al.74Fe(III).07]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:+.02, Tetrahedral charge:-.81,Interlayer charge:-.79, Unbalanced charge:+.35Lacks Si:.01, Lacks Mg:.15

    Sepiolite SepSp-1
    ORIGIN: Valdemore, Spain
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 52.9 Al2O3: 2.56, TiO2:
    <.001, Fe2O3:1.22, FeO: 0.3, MnO: 0.13, MgO: 23.6, CaO: ><.01, Na2O: ><0.01, K2O: 0.05,P2O5: 0.01, LOI: 20.8>STRUCTURE:(K.01)[Mg5.54 Al.35 Mn.02 Fe(II).04 Fe(III).14][Si7.90 Al.1]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:+.49, Tetrahedral charge:-.10,Interlayer charge:+.39, Unbalanced charge:+.40Lacks Mg:.20

    Sepiolite SepNev-1
    ORIGIN: Two Crows, Nevada, USA
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 54.0 Al2O3: 0.5, TiO2:
    <.001, Fe2O3: 0.81, FeO: ><0.1, MnO: 0.11, MgO: 23.3, CaO: 1.25, Na2O: 2.1, K2O: 0.15,P2O5: 0.02, LOI: 19.2>STRUCTURE:(Ca.2 Na.6 K.03)[Mg5.81 Al.09 Mn.01 Fe(III).09][Si8.00]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:+.18, Tetrahedral charge:0.0,Interlayer charge:+.18, Unbalanced charge:+1.03Extra Si: 0.02 Lacks Mg:.65

    Beidellite, SBCa-1
    ORIGIN: California, USA
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 46.45 Al2O3: 27.95, TiO2: 0.517, Fe2O3:2.13, FeO: 0.1, MnO: 0.08, MgO: 0.94, CaO: 1.01, Na2O:
    <.01, K2O: 0.72,P2O5: 0.11, LOI: 20.25>STRUCTURE:(Mg.3 Ca.16 K.15)[Al3.82 Fe(III).18 Mntr Ti.06][Si6.80Al1.20]O20(OH)4,Octahedral charge:+.12, Tetrahedral charge:-1.20,Interlayer charge:-1.08, Unbalanced charge:0.0

    Beidellite, SBId-1
    ORIGIN: Idaho, USA
    STRUCTURE:Si3.772, Al(IV).228, Al(VI)1.786, Fe(III).104, Mg(VI).046 Mn.001Ti.048 Na.012 K.159,.050.Also see Post et al, 1997, Clays and Clay Minerals 45:240-250

    Nontronite NAu-1
    ORIGIN: South Australia
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 53.33 Al2O3: 10.22, Fe2O3: 34.19MgO: 0.27, CaO: 3.47, Na2O: 0.08, K2O: 0.03
    STRUCTURE:(M+1.0)[Si7.00 Al1.00][Al.58 Fe3.38 Mg.05]Also see Keeling, J.L.et al. 2000 "Geology and perliminarycharacterization of two nontronites from Uley graphite mine, South Australia"Clays and Clay Minerals.

    Nontronite NAu-2
    ORIGIN: South Australia
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 56.99 Al2O3: 3.4, Fe2O3: 37.42MgO: 0.34, CaO: 2.67, Na2O: 0.11, K2O: 0.02
    STRUCTURE:(M+.97)[Si7.57 Al.01 Fe.42][Al.52 Fe3.32 Mg.7]O20(OH)4Also see Keeling, J.L.et al. 2000 "Geology and perliminarycharacterization of two nontronites from Uley graphite mine, South Australia" Clays and Clay Minerals.

    Synthetic Hectorite SYnH-1
    ORIGIN: United Catalysts Inc.
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (%): SiO2: 57-61MgO: 25-29 Li2O 0.5-0.9, Na2O: 2.5-3.5, LOI: <10
    DENSITY: 2.5g/cm3
    MOISTURE CONTENT: 12%

    Illite IWi-1
    ORIGIN: Waukesha illite, Silurian, Wisconsin, USA
    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION: See Grathoff et al. 1995. Abstract of 32ndAnnual Clay Minerals Society Meeting

     

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